best sports training and physical therapy

Preventing Heat Illness in Young Athletes

Many young athletes are gearing up for fall sports and activities. This means less rest, long hours of training, extra sun exposure and added layers of equipment that together increase the risk of heat illness. Heat illness includes several conditions ranging from mild dehydration and muscle cramps to more extreme cases of heat stroke.

Though heat illness prevention practices have greatly improved in Texas schools and across the country, it’s concerning to see athletes who, for example, sit on the couch all summer playing video games in the air conditioning. Like many, they show up to preseason training out of shape and poorly prepared for the heat.

To manage heat from the environment and from activities, the body must be in balance. Most athletes need guidance from adults to make good choices throughout the year, especially in the summer and as they begin intensive training, like preseason football two-a-days.

Here are some suggestions for parents and coaches who want to reduce the risk of heat-related illnesses in young athletes in all sports:

Encourage your athlete to:

  • Adopt healthy sleep habits

  • Choose healthy food options

  • Limit consumption of caffeinated and sugary beverage

  • Drink water throughout the day

  • Remain physically activity throughout the summer

  • Plan activities to acclimate to the heat BEFORE training begins

  • Slowly increase time and intensity DURING the season

  • Continue to provide conditioning activities throughout the season

  • Notify athletic trainers of fever or changes in medical history

  • Update the organization’s Emergency Action Plan to ensure preparedness for heat illness

When planning and leading long sessions or training in hot indoor or outdoor environments, coaches can help reduce the risk of heat-related illnesses with these tips:

  • Encourage frequent and adequate rest and water breaks, every 15 – 20 minutes

  • Provide sports drinks with 6-8% carbohydrates for training lasting more than 60 minutes

  • Avoid training in direct sunlight and provide shade for breaks

  • Encourage removal of equipment during breaks, e.g., helmet

  • Encourage athletes to wear loose-fitting, light-colored and moisture-wicking clothing

  • Know the signs and symptoms of heat illness (See Figure 1)

  • Insist on proper conditioning; it takes 10-14 days to adapt to heat

  • Avoid practice from 10:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. when the sun is most intense

  • Follow league or organization guidelines for practice schedules

  • Modify or cancel activity, as needed, based on temperature and humidity warnings

  • Provide resources for rapid cooling, e.g., immersion tub of ice and water, iced towels